All you need to know about blood donation
Blood donation, that is, voluntary blood donation for those who need it, is a noble cause. After all, your blood can save a person’s life. But often people are afraid to donate blood: they are afraid that it is unhealthy, that it hurts, that they can become infected, etc. Let us try to answer the most common questions regarding blood donation.
Can all be donors?
No, not all. A person can become a blood donor:
at the age of 18 to 60 years;
weighing at least 50 kg;
a citizen of the Russian Federation or living in Russia for at least a year on legal grounds;
not having medical contraindications to donation.
What are the contraindications?
Contraindications (absolute) are:
some transferred infectious diseases (HIV, AIDS, hepatitis A, B, C, D, etc.);
pathology of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, genitourinary system;
serious endocrine pathologies;
eye diseases, including severe myopia;
skin lesions – fungal, bacterial, eczema, etc .;
organic damage to the central nervous system, mental disorders;
alcoholism and drug addiction.
Relative, that is, temporary, contraindications are:
pregnancy (and throughout the year after delivery), breastfeeding (12 weeks after it);
menstruation (and 5 days after it);
tooth extraction (10 days);
antibiotic treatment (14 days);
vaccination (from 10 days to 1 year depending on the vaccine);
acute respiratory infections (1 month);
allergy attack (2 months);
surgery, blood transfusion (6 months);
trips abroad (6 months);
tattoo, acupuncture (1 year).
Is it often possible to donate blood?
Blood can be donated to men 5 times a year, women – 4.
Do I need to prepare for blood donation?
No special training is required. Before the procedure you need to sleep well. The procedure is best scheduled in the morning. Before this, be sure to have breakfast, preferably porridge (but not milk!) Or vegetables / fruits, drink tea with a bun. But meat, dairy products, chocolate, fatty, spicy foods should not be eaten for 12 hours before the procedure (preferably – a day).
For 3 days, you must refuse to take painkillers and blood thinners (aspirin), and for 2 days – from alcohol (any).
For some reason, many people think that smoking is a contraindication to donation. Smokers may well be donors, they just should not smoke an hour before donating blood.
How long does the procedure take?
If whole blood is taken, then the whole procedure lasts about fifteen minutes.
Today, blood components are used: formed elements and plasma. At the same time, they immediately take the necessary components, but this takes more time: to take the plasma – half an hour, platelets – 1.5 hours.
It must be remembered that immediately before the procedure, the alleged donor undergoes a blood test, then he undergoes a medical examination.
Is the procedure dangerous?
Some are afraid to get infected while taking blood. This is completely ruled out. Blood is taken with sterile disposable instruments, while the packaging is opened in front of the donor. Closed systems that work automatically are used to capture plasma or platelets.
How much blood is taken at a time?
450 ml of whole blood is taken, 600 ml of plasma, 200 ml of platelets.
Is donation dangerous to health?
Donating 450 ml of blood to a healthy person will not bring harm, since such a small blood loss (and this is about 12%) will not disrupt the body. In addition, the blood volume will recover quite quickly. On the contrary, doctors say that for those who donate blood regularly, hematopoiesis is activated and resistance to stress increases. This means that with an injury or serious illness (and no one is safe from them), the donor’s body will recover faster.
According to observations, donors are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases, they have increased immunity. The fears of weight gain or addiction are completely unfounded: these are myths that are not true.
What complications can still be?
The main undesirable consequence of donation is a decrease in hemoglobin, which can cause anemia. However, before taking blood, the donor is tested, including for hemoglobin. If it is below the norm even by one unit, then they will not take blood.
When platelets are taken, sodium citrate is used to prevent blood from clotting. However, it removes calcium. To prevent a drop in calcium levels, calcium gluconate is administered to the donor. Subsequently, he is recommended to take calcium preparations.
After the procedure, the appearance of weakness, dizziness, fainting is possible. To cope with this condition, lie on your back so that your legs are higher than your head, or sit with your head lowered.
Are there any restrictions after the procedure?
Having donated blood, sit quietly for about fifteen minutes.
Do not smoke for an hour.
The bandage can be removed after 4 hours.
In the first two days, drink more fluids, eat often, 5-6 times a day, food should be high-calorie.