Heart disease occupies the first place as the cause of death worldwide, and mortality from them is constantly growing. Why is this happening ?: Sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, poor ecology, constant stress, bad habits such as smoking and drinking alcohol – all this contributes to the disruption of our heart. As a result, heart diseases arise that significantly worsen the quality of life, lead to disability, and in some cases to death.
There are a lot of heart diseases, and each has its own symptoms unique to it. But doctors highlight some common characteristic signs that indicate a malfunction in the heart.
Fatigue, a constant feeling of fatigue – a fairly common condition and can be associated with various pathologies. However, it may also indicate heart disease.
Shortness of breath, a feeling of lack of air can appear during physical exertion, in more severe cases – and at rest. This is a very characteristic symptom of heart disease.
Arrhythmia is a violation of the rhythm of the heart. Most often, tachycardia, or a frequent pulse, is observed. As a rule, a rapid heartbeat accompanies physical exertion, stress, a sense of fear. But if this condition appears often and for no specific reason, you should definitely consult a specialist.
Pain behind the sternum is also a specific symptom of heart disease. Pain can manifest itself in different ways: acute, constricting, or felt like heaviness in the chest, short or long, extending to the shoulder, arm, or leg.
Symptoms of heart disease also include symptoms such as swelling, sweating, nausea, dizziness, and fainting.
Heart diseases can be congenital and acquired, inflammatory, caused by the penetration of infection, caused by disturbances in the circulatory system, anomalies in the anatomy.
Most often, cardiac pathologies such as coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, heart disease, myocarditis, endocarditis pericarditis, heart failure, are found.
Coronary heart disease (CHD), also known as coronary heart disease, is the most common heart disease caused by narrowing of the coronary vessels, which leads to impaired blood supply to the heart. The main symptom of CHD is angina pectoris, manifested by pain in the chest area: pressure, heaviness, burning, aching pain. Pain can spread to the back, neck, arms, shoulders. IHD is also characterized by shortness of breath, rapid or intermittent palpitations, nausea, increased sweating, dizziness, and weakness.
If a pain attack in coronary heart disease lasts more than 15 minutes and is not relieved by conventional medications, this may indicate the development of myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction occurs due to necrosis of the muscle tissue of the heart as a result of the lack of blood supply. Along with chest pain with myocardial infarction, severe weakness with sweating, shortness of breath, suffocation, dizziness occur. Nausea and vomiting are possible. In some people, a heart attack may go away without symptoms.
Inflammatory heart diseases: myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), endocarditis and pericarditis (inflammation of the inner and outer shell of the heart) – can be caused by a viral, bacterial or fungal infection, immune malfunctions, injuries. As a rule, these diseases are complications of ARVI, tonsillitis, flu, etc. With improper treatment or its absence, viruses and bacteria, moving with a blood stream, can reach the heart and cause inflammation of its tissues.
Pericarditis is a deadly disease. The causes of it, along with infectious diseases, can be autoimmune diseases and injuries. With pericarditis, fluid accumulates in the pericardium, which prevents the contraction of the heart muscle, which can cause cardiac arrest. Symptoms of pericarditis are acute chest pain (can be heard in the neck, back, arms), palpitations, a slight increase in temperature. The patient’s condition improves when sitting upright, but when lying down, as well as when swallowing, coughing, taking a deep breath, the symptoms intensify.
Endocarditis can develop after infectious diseases, as well as surgical interventions, even minor ones, such as extraction of a tooth or tonsils. In this disease, the symptoms are specific: high fever, chills, joint pain, grayish skin color, as well as a thickening of the phalanges of the fingers. Endocarditis is dangerous for its complications: heart failure, rupture of valves, heart disease, impaired renal function.
Myocarditis occurs under the influence of bacteria, viruses, fungi, drugs, toxins. Often it proceeds without vivid symptoms and ends in recovery. The danger is the possible occurrence of cardiomyopathy.
Heart defects are diseases that are characterized by various abnormalities of the parts of the heart: septa, valves, large vessels.